Masks are a thing of the past for Europe’s airports

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The European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have updated their Aviation Health Safety Protocol to advise that wear mask wearing is no longer mandatory on public transport, this also needs to be the case at airports and on-board aircraft.

The Aviation Health Safety Protocol, advises European States and industry on the progressive de-escalation of protective measures aimed at limiting the risk of COVID-19 infection during air travel. Reflecting the evolution of the epidemiological situation and risks  as well as the latest scientific evidence, the updated guidance also removes the requirement to ensure physical distancing within terminals and other airport areas. In addition, it removes access restrictions to airport terminals, therefore allowing passengers and all other visitors to enter and use the range of services there.

Where health checks and testing requirements remain in place, the guidance advises that States should implement ‘One Stop’ arrangements to avoid duplication between departure, transit and arrival processes.

Airports Council International (ACI) Europe’s Director General, Olivier Jankovec, welcomed the updated guidance saying: “Over the past two years, the EASA-ECDC Aviation Health Safety Protocol has been essential to ensure risk-based and uniform COVID-19 protective measures for air travel across Europe. This remains the case with today’s update, with guidelines that continue to be effective, proportionate, and practical – and which reflect the fact that an increasing number of States no longer mandate wearing face masks nor social distancing for travel.”

He also noted that with the summer season set to be a busy one, the new guidance marks another step in the safe recovery of European aviation and it will make the travel experience much more pleasant, while keeping passengers and staff safe.

Meanwhile, the International Air Transport Association’s (IATA’s) Director General, Willie Walsh commented that “Travellers can look forward to freedom of choice on whether to wear a mask. And they can travel with confidence knowing that many features of the aircraft cabin, such as high frequency air exchange and high efficiency filters, make it one of the safest indoor environments.”

Ground handlers and airports unite to address complex operational challenges

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The Airport Services Association (ASA) and Airports Council International (ACI) Europe have issued a joint statement addressing the complex operational issues faced by ground handlers and airports alike as we enter what the industry is forecasting will be a busy summer travel season.

While ASA’s Managing Director, Fabio Gamba, and ACI Europe’s Director General, Olivier Jankovec, welcome the return of air travel after the devastating impact of COVID-19 on their respective industries, they agreed that the recovery of passenger traffic has accelerated sharply and suddenly. “While still remaining below pre-pandemic (2019) levels, passenger traffic has also become much more concentrated over peak periods,” their statement read. “In fact, at many airports traffic peaks are at, or higher than, pre-pandemic levels.

Coping with this sudden increase in air traffic has proved challenging for airports and their operational partners, in particular ground handlers. It has resulted in an increase in flight delays and cancellations, as well as a degraded passenger experience at many airports, as key processes including check-in, security screening and baggage delivery involve longer waiting times.

The main underlying reason for these disruptions has been the difficulty to scale up staffing to the levels required to accommodate the surge in passenger traffic.

Outlining the reasons for the staff crunch, the two organisations said the cause is: Airports and ground handlers have been forced to lay off staff due to the collapse in air traffic in 2020 and 2021. “The fact that airports and ground handlers received far less financial aid than airlines and that such aid came rather late was a significant contributing factor to their weakened operational capabilities.”

The extremely tight labour market across Europe was another contributing factor. “The fact that security and ground handling jobs have for many years stood at the lower end of the pay scales and also involve working in shifts seven days a week is a clear handicap in attracting people in the current inflationary environment.”

In the case of ground handling in particular, years of liberalisation triggered by the EU Ground Handling Directive, have resulted in a downward spiral that has now become both socially and operationally unsustainable. If low wages and compromised service quality were already a concern pre-pandemic, they are now coming to the fore.

Finally the training and security clearance requirements have also made it impossible to quickly adapt and deploy additional staff. It can take up to 16 weeks between staff recruitment and deployment.

While both associations that in the short-term there is no quick and easy fix to the staffing issues, they highlighted that disruptions could be reduced by: Faster security clearance from competent authorities for airport and ground handling staff; Airlines adapting their schedules to reduce traffic peaks and returning unused slots as early as possible; Effective and even closer dialogue and cooperation between all partners involved.

“In the medium-term, EU rules on ground handling need to be reconsidered with a renewed focus on resilience. It is crucial that no further liberalisation of ground handling is pursued without a robust legal package aimed at guaranteeing a minimum quality of service and the promotion and recognition of the ground handling workers’ skills through, for instance the creation of widely recognised training passports. Also, the ability to set an upper limit on the number of ground handling suppliers based on the size of the market (or airport) would go a long way in addressing both social and operational shortcomings,” the statement concluded.

RACE2022: Catania named 200th airport to engage in the Airport Carbon Accreditation programme

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The European airport industry marked a milestone during ACI Europe’s 13th Regional Airport Conference and Exhibition taking place in Palermo this week with more than 200 airports now engaged in climate action with the Airport Carbon Accreditation programme.

At the latest count, 204 European airports were engage in climate action at one of the six available certification levels. Catania Fontanarossa was named the 200th airport to be accredited during the conference on Tuesday 29 March having achieved Level 2. Meanwhile, Shannon, Jersey and Newcastle airports were all accredited at Level 1 and Brussels South Charleroi at Level 2.

Since launching in 2009, the Airport Carbon Accreditation programme has enjoyed robust growth with European hubs topping the ranking of the highest number of airports at the more advanced levels of accreditation. Speaking at ACI Europe’s conference, Olivier Jankovec, ACI Europe’s Director General stated that “today’s milestone leaves no doubt that European airports are true leaders in decarbonisation, committed to addressing their emissions through thick and thin.”

Underlining that the climate emergency remains a top priority for airports despite the other crises on the continent, Clara de La Torre, Deputy Director General, DG Climate Action, European Commission commented: “Europe’s airports’ persistence and exemplary commitment to climate action is all the more noteworthy as the challenges we face right now affect their day-to-day operation and their future deeply.”

Jankovec added: “The past two years have been particularly daunting for our industry and it would have been easy to “postpone” climate action until better times came around. Instead, what we have witnessed is a landslide engagement in Airport Carbon Accreditation, both in terms of new accreditations and upgrades to the most stringent levels of carbon management.”

He concluded that today’s milestone “leaves no doubt that European airports are true leaders in decarbonisation, committed to addressing their emissions through thick and thin.”

RACE2022: Strong growth forecast for Palermo Airport

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Despite being in dire straits 10 years ago, Palermo Airport in Sicily is revolutionised itself into one of Italy’s airport succes stories and is now looking forward to a bright future, according to Giovanni Battista Scalia, Chief Executive Officer, GESAP, Aeroporto di Palermo. He revealed that the airport expects to see a return to 2019 passenger traffic levels by 2023.

Battista was speaking at this year’s ACI Europe Regional Airports Conference and Exhibition, which Palermo Airport is hosting this week at the city’s stunning Teatro Massimo.

Up until the pandemic Palermo Airport had been experiencing steady growth with passenger numbers growing from 4 million in 2013 to 7 million in 2019. “We were lucky that we were able to remain open and serving flights throughout the pandemic,” said Battista admitting that passenger flights were significantly reduced during this period. And while the focus for the airport has previously been on serving European destinations (which were increasing consistently) in 2019 it was looking at building connectivity with Turkey and the US – a focus it plans to continue with now passenger traffic is returning.

The airport is currently undergoing an extensive upgrade having already implemented a runway resurfacing project and completed a new arrivals hall. The three-floor terminal which continues to undergo renovation works currently features 36 check-in kiosks, 20 gates, 7 loading bridges and 1 VIP lounge. Once complete the new terminal will be 40% larger than the current facility. It will feature a new commercial area, departures lounge, security gate and lounge area. It will also take advantage of its coastal location with panoramic views of the sea, a new food & beverage offering to reflect local Sicilian cuisine, as well as street food and international dishes.

Designed to accommodate continued passenger growth in the future, the new terminal has been created to accommodate up to 12 million passengers.

“We were fortunate in that we remained open and serving airline traffic throughout the pandemic,” said Battista. “As a result of that there has been a big focus on health and hygiene and we have invested heavily on IT systems and temperature control technology to cater for this. It was important that we offered support to passengers and our airport teams throughout the pandemic, so we offered free COVID-19 testing and also offered an incentive programme to encourage airlines to remain/ return to the airport and help with their recovery,” he added.

Looking forward, the environment and decarbonisation will continue to be big talking points for the airport with a solar project currently in discussion with electric power provider ENE and various other environmentally friendly projects underway.

Additional investments at the airport include a new cargo area, the expansion of the airport’s car parking facilities, new boarding docks, the adaptation of the Baggage Handling System to enhance hold baggage screening, improved energy and environmental efficiency and the creation of a natural park connected to the terminal by an architect-designed bridge.

 

RACE2022: Regional airport leaders gather to discuss building back better and greener

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With regional airport leaders from across Europe gathering in Palermo, Sicily this week for ACI Europe’s 13th Regional Airports Conference and Exhibition, the theme for this year’s event is ‘After the darkness, building back better and greener.’

Kicking off the first day of conferencing on Tuesday 29 March, David Feldman, Conference Chair and Managing Director, Exambela highlighted that while “we can survive with the likes of zoom, teams and whats app, we cannot thrive.” He went on to say that airports are fundamentally a people business and about facilitating connectivity, as he declared that this year’s event is all about how regional airports can thrive. “Key to that,’ he said is the need to employ a strategy that is robust, ambitious and pragmatic.

Feldman also challenged ACI’s traditional message that every journey begins at the airport, as he described aviation’s evolving landscape means that the likes of Amazon, Google and Microsoft are all entering the airport (through autonomous and digital technology). Now, he said we need to recognise that: “Every trip begins with Google!”

How regional airports are faring

Taking to the stage after Feldman, ACI Europe’s Director General, Olivier Jankovec, outlined how Europe’s regional airports have lost 821 million passengers over the last two years as he described the “collapse of air traffic across Europe as systemic”.

He also pointed out that how air travel has fared in terms of its recovery correlates directly with government support or lack of. The lack of financial support in Finland and UK, he said, is behind these two countries demonstrating the slowest levels of recovery for their aviation sectors within Europe. He also welcomed the complete u-turn from the UK Government which has now lifted all travel restrictions and has gone from “being one of the most closed to one of the most open countries in Europe.”

On a more positive note Jankovec also revealed that regional airports across Europe have benefitted from the industry’s slow pace of recovery with regional hubs’ recovery being more dynamic than for larger airports. “The recovery of regional airports (with 5-10m passengers) was almost twice that of larger airports in 2021,” he said. “This is partially due to the recovery of intra-European and VFR traffic enabled by the success of vaccination roll outs and governments more efficiently aligning themselves with travel regimes.”

Both ACI and IATA have argued that unnecessary travel restrictions were ineffective in stopping the spread of the virus. Instead Jankovec would like to see proof of vaccination status or -COVID-19 testing being the only requirements for air travel. He also called for universal health and hygiene measures at airports, while state aid and governmental support is essential in airports’ recovery with many airports facing fixed operator costs, growing debts and a crunch on investment.

Looking ahead, there is optimism for the spring/ summer 2022 season with airlines noting an increase in bookings and intra-European connectivity expected to be close to 2019 levels. Regional airports are expected to have airlines deploying more capacity over the summer months to meet demand. In addition, low-cost carriers  (LCCs) are credited with driving the recovery with both Ryanair and Wizz Air spearheading the drive in increased capacity in the coming months.

“Overall and based on current airlines’ plans for the summer season, recovery prospects remain pretty good for most of Europe’s regional airports. They could see the capacity deployed by airlines finally exceeding pre-pandemic levels between +1.2% to +2.2% – whereas larger airports will see airline capacity remaining well below such levels. However, these averages mask considerable variations, with regional airports serving popular tourism destinations and located on islands benefitting the most form a recovery fuelled by leisure and VFR demand,” Jankovec added.

Ukraine invasion presents a new challenge

While the pandemic still remains at large, the new challenge facing the industry warned Jankoved is the war in Ukraine, which Jankovec said has “thrown aviation into unchartered territory… In addition to the collapse of passenger traffic at Ukrainian airports and the loss of most international passenger traffic at Russian airports, for some other airports these risks of a heightened downturn in passenger traffic are immediate.”

While most of these risks remain less acute for Europe’s airports at the moment, the continued uncertainty of what impact the war in Ukraine might have in the longer term as well as the impact it is having currently is resulting in renewed supply pressures (with downsized airlines and reduced fleets); slot waivers freezing capacity at major airports which has a knock-on effect on regional hubs; and a spike in fuel costs. He also noted the continued uncertainty could lead to a risk that curbs on air travel will be implemented to reduce oil demand.

Closing his keynote speech Jankovec underlined that while European airports (including many regional hubs) are leading aviation’s decarbonisation journey, one of if not the biggest challenge facing airports and the aviation industry as a whole remains  sustainability and decarbonisation. “The threat of climate change is becoming ever more alarming,” said Jankovec. He referenced the EU’s Fit for 55 package which includes mandates for the deployment of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) at all European airports, as well as a requirement for airports to provide facilities for electric charging, and a proposal to tax kerosene.  While the industry supports these measures, Jankovec was frustrated that “no cumulative impact assessment on airports and aviation has been conducted.”  He emphasised that “it is crucial for Europe and governments to stand for and defend regional air connectivity, which includes airports – they are a test bed for next-generation, electric and hybrid aircraft operations with short-haul routes being the first these aircraft will be deployed on, as well as being integral to UAM and new air connectivity.”

Concluding that “we must and will succeed in decarbonising aviation,” Jankovec referenced a quote by Airbus CEO, Guillaume Faury that stated that collaboration from all stakeholders will help create a global playing field that will ensure all entities from regional airports to smaller airlines will be able to keep pace with energy transition and remain competitive.

European airports reinforce commitment to net-zero future with Toulouse Declaration

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To reinforce the aviation industry’s commitment to a net-zero future, airports across Europe have signed up in record numbers to the Toulouse Declaration on the future sustainability and decarbonisation of aviation.

The Toulouse Declaration marks the first time that European governments, the European Commission, industry, unions and other key stakeholders formally align on aviation decarbonisation.

The declaration is a significant moment for the aviation industry as it paves the way for the next steps in the establishment of an EU Pact for Aviation Decarbonisation and as we look to the global goals for aviation which the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) will set out later this year.

Airports have long been at the forefront of leading the challenge of decarbonising aviation. With almost 200 European airports now certified under the Airport Carbon Accreditation programme, and close to 400 airports globally, Airport Council International (ACI) Europe’s work to reach net zero carbon emissions for operations under an airport’s control by 2050 continues to make tangible progress.

“Each and every airport undersigning the declaration is making a tangible difference to our future as an industry, an economy and as a society,” said Olivier Jankovec, Director General of ACI Europe. “They continue to demonstrate ambition, vision and excellence in their sustainable actions. I admire and applaud each every one of them.”

ACI Europe’s signing of the declaration, both in its own right and as a partner in the Destination 2050 aviation industry roadmap, is complemented by the individual undertaking of more than 200 airports across the continent also adding their signatures.

Commenting further on the UK airport community’s commitment to the declaration and to decarbonising aviation, Airport Operators Association chief executive Karen Dee said: “Despite the devastating impact the pandemic has had on UK airports’ finances, airport leaders remain committed to our net zero emissions by 2050 target.

“As we recover from the pandemic, there is a real opportunity to build back better and return to 2019 passenger levels while reducing environmental impacts.

“Government and industry need to work together to achieve this, with the recent government funding for the next stage of airspace modernisation a step in the right direction. The UK government should use its planned Aviation Strategic Framework to outline how they will further support industry’s efforts.

“The AOA has set out that this should include a Green Airports Fund to help fund sustainability initiatives while airports’ finances recover from the significant losses of the last two years.”

Eurocontrol and ACI Europe ink deal commiting to aviation’s sustainable future

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To further underline their commitment to collaborating on aviation’s successful and sustainable future, ACU Europe’s Director General, Olivier Jankovec, and Eurocontrol’s Director General, Eamonn Brennan, have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to enhance their co-operation in working towards aviation’s stability, safety and sustainability.

ACI Europe’s Jankovec said: “For Europe’s airports, recovering from COVID-19 and the imperative to ‘Build Back Better’ means chasing every opportunity to increase their operational efficiency and reduce their environmental footprint. Over the past years, Eurocontrol has come to play an increasingly important role in supporting not just airports but the whole aviation eco-system in that direction. The challenges we face in progressing further and the interconnected nature of aviation means enhanced collaboration and integration are key. This is precisely what this new agreement between ACI EUROPE and Eurocontrol is about.”

The MoU replaces an existing agreement from 2008 and builds on a framework of co-operation based on two pillars: efficient air transport and sustainable air transport.

The former will be achieved through increased integration between operations at and around airport platforms and air traffic management, moving to collaborative decision-making. This is integral to have operations on time and to make better use of existing capacity and unlock latent capacity. It will ultimately result in a one-on-one information exchange between the Network Operation Plan (NOP) and Airport Operation Plan (AOP) and will be delivered via ACI Europe and its airport members as well as the Eurocontrol Network Manager and the continued participation of Eurocontrol in ACI Europe’s Technical, Operations and Safety committee.

Meanwhile, sustainable air transport will be addressed through the continued development and reach of the Airport Carbon Accreditation programme and the continued rollout of Eurocontrol’s Collaborative Environmental Management (CEM), which provides process guidance through which airports are able to reduce their environmental impact in close co-operation with operational stakeholders.

Brennan emphasised that Eurocontrol is focused on supporting European aviation and is working closely with airports to deliver enhanced operational efficiency and sustainable solutions as we recover from the pandemic.

“Flights were down 44% last year across Europe to 6.2 million, whilst at the same time passengers numbers were down 59% – a loss of 1.4 billion,” he said. “Time and again our organisations have shown that working together in areas as diverse as innovation, R&D, urban air mobility and optimising performance at all levels reaps even greater benefits for aviation. We look forward to strengthening our collaboration even further for the benefit of the wider aviation network as a whole.”

Dismay at rhetoric around “ghost flights” as airports trade body reiterates support for slot thresholds

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Airports Council International (ACI) Europe has expressed dismay at the escalating industry and political rhetoric around so-called “ghost flights” and reiterated its strong support for the European Commission’s position on the thresholds for use of airport slots by airlines.

The usage threshold for the current season, Winter 21, is set at 50%. This is, as the European Commission has reiterated, a significantly lower threshold than that set under the 80/20 “use it or lose it” principle applicable in normal times. It is designed to reflect the uncertainties of a badly hit market and fragile recovery for aviation.

Crucially, and as a direct result of the ongoing uncertainties posed by the pandemic, there is also in place a specific provision for what the Worldwide Airport Slot Guidelines calls “justified non-use of slots” (JNUS).

JNUS effectively allows airlines to use their allocated airport slots for less than 50% of the time. It is specifically designed to address the COVID pandemic and covers not only outright travel bans but also restrictions of movement, quarantine or isolation measures that impact the viability or possibility of travel or the demand for travel on specific routes.

It is therefore the case that, with a significantly reduced slot usage threshold and a specific provision for changing circumstances such as that presented by the Omicron variant, airlines are very well protected from the current uncertainties.

As a result, it is unclear why the issue of “ghost flights” is now under discussion. Ghost flights are defined as those voluntarily operated by airlines exclusively for the purpose of retaining historic rights to their slots. Accordingly, ghost flights are not offered for sale, carry no passengers and generate no revenue for airlines. Conversely, flights offered for sale, carrying passengers and generating revenue for airlines cannot be considered as ghost flights.

Low load factors have been a reality throughout the pandemic, but the retention of vital air connectivity for both economic and societal imperatives is well documented.

Olivier Jankovec, Director General of ACI Europe, said: “A few airlines are claiming they are forced to run high volumes of empty flights in order to retain airport slot usage rights. There is absolutely no reason why this should be the reality. As was clearly stated by the European Commission, slot usage rules need to achieve two things in the current circumstances. Firstly, to protect airlines from the worst of unpredictabilities which are out of all our hands. Secondly, and crucially, to also ensure that airport capacity is still used in a pro-competitive way.

“The pandemic has hit us all hard. Balancing commercial viability alongside the need to retain essential connectivity and protect against anti-competitive consequences is a delicate task. We believe that the European Commission has got this right. Talk of ghost flights and of their environmental impacts seems to hint at a doomsday scenario which has no place in reality. Let’s stick to the vital task of recovering and rebuilding together.”

Increased airport slot usage rule welcomed by European airports

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Airports Council International (ACI) Europe has welcomed the decision by the European Commission to set a 64% minimum airport slot usage threshold for the summer 2022 season.

“Moving to a 64% usage rule for next summer is an essential and fully justified step in progressively restoring normal slot usage rules, which should be fully reinstated for winter 2022,” said Olivier Jankovec, Director General of ACI Europe.

As of next summer, airlines operating out of congested EU airports will be required to use their allocated slots for at least 64% of the time to keep them, up from the 50% threshold currently applied. While this is still a way off the normal 80% usage rules, the continued application of ‘force majeure’ provisions will in any case provide airlines with full flexibility and protection from the usage requirement in case of disruptive new travel restrictions.

Jankovec added that the Commission’s decision reflects the new reality of the aviation market where some airlines have downsized structurally while others are looking at expanding. “There is no doubt this will facilitate the continued restoration of air connectivity and at the same time allow for a more effective use of airport capacity,” he said.

The progressive increase in the minimum slot usage threshold is backed by data from both Eurocontrol and airports throughout Europe, which points towards a good level of recovery in the summer season. This would see traffic reaching a substantial percentage of 2019 levels on average, and at some airports and in some peak periods actually equalling or surpassing 2019 traffic.

Following the busy summer season and the resulting need for airports to make appropriate operational plans, airports urge airlines to return slots which are not being used as early as possible. This will provide airports with visibility of planned use of their capacity, which is vital in this period of ramping-up of operations.

Uneven recovery pace for European airports

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Passenger traffic in Europe’s airport network decreased by -36.7% in October, compared to the same period pre-pandemic (2019) – an improvement on September’s report which showed -42.9%, according to Airports Council International (ACI) Europe.

The European airport trade body’s October air traffic report also highlighted that the lower passenger traffic losses came from airports in the EU+ area (-41.2% in October, up from -48.1% in September). Although airports in the non-EU+ area still kept outperforming in October (-17.4%), they didn’t see passenger traffic improving at the same pace when compared to September (-20.8%)

These improvements were all led by international (mostly intra-European) passenger traffic (-42.4% in October, up from -50.2% in September). Conversely, domestic passenger traffic slightly decreased during the month (-18.1%) compared to the previous one (-17.9%).

“The significant progress made on vaccinations translated into an improved performance for many airports in October,@ said Olivier Jankovec, DG of ACI Europe.

“This is good news – and the reopening of the transatlantic market in November only added to the momentum. But at the same time, this has not been a uniform trend. This autumn has shown that the patterns of our traffic recovery vary significantly from country to country and even between individual airports. Most of all, the emergence of the Omicron variant over the past weeks has shown that nothing can be taken for granted – and that our recovery path remains fragile. The reinstatement of travel bans is not supported by the WHO. We urgently need such measures to be reconsidered, and to make sure we finally learn to live with the virus,” he continued.

The uneven recovery pace of passenger traffic showed that airports in Greece, Cyprus, Portugal and Spain posted the lowest passenger traffic decreases, as they benefitted from significant leisure demand towards the end of the summer season facilitated by much eased travel regimes.

Meanwhile, airports in destinations including Finland, the Czech Republic, the UK and Sweden posted the worst performance not just within the EU+ area but across the whole of Europe, along with Israel. This largely reflected continued or reimposed travel restrictions and lockdowns.

Outside the EU+ area, the best performance came from airports in Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Russia and Uzbekistan.

The report also underlined that the almost exclusive reliance of small regional airports on domestic and intra-European traffic allowed them to tap into significant levels of pent-up demand, achieving lower traffic losses in October. Airports with less than 5 million passengers per annum saw passenger traffic decreasing by -22.8%, less than half the decrease of their larger counterparts.

A small number of insular airports serving popular tourism destinations managed to fully recover or even exceed their pre-pandemic passenger traffic levels: Sochi, Calvi, Kerkira, Ajaccio, Chania, Rhodes, Paphos and Funchal. However, there was overall extreme variance in the performance of smaller regional airports as airlines remained risk averse and as worsening epidemiological situations and travel restrictions took a heavy toll on most airports located in the UK and the central/ Eastern part of the EU.

Similarly, the reliance of secondary airports serving capitals or economic centres on intra-European traffic and low-cost carriers also proved to be beneficial. This was shown to be the case for Rome Ciampino compared to Rome-Fiumicino, which was hit by the closure of Alitalia. This was also the case for Paris Orly and Paris-Beauvais compared to Paris-CDG, Bergamo compared to Milan Malpensa and Charleroi compared to Brussels.